Hi! What now?

    
Hi!
What now?

    Anthropologist and Senator Darcy Ribeiro died on February 17. He was
    considered by most an accomplished educator, novelist, anthropologist,
    and politician. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso went to his funeral
    and even declared a national three-day mourning period in the days following
    his death. Was he only a façade? Was Ribeiro the shrewdest cheater
    Brazil has ever seen? That’s what this article wants to prove.

    By


    Quem tem boca vai a Roma.

    (If you can speak you can get to Rome.)


    When they settled Brazil in the 16th century, the Portuguese encountered the diverse languages of the Indians.
    These, together with the various idioms and dialects spoken by the Africans brought in as slaves, extensively changed
    the Portuguese spoken by the early settlers.

    Along with Portuguese, Tupi-Guarani (language), written down and simplified by the Jesuits, became a
    common language which was understood by the majority of the population. It was spoken by the general public until the
    middle of the 18th century, but its usage diminished with the great number of Portuguese gold-rush immigrants and a
    royal proclamation in 1757 prohibiting its use. With the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759, Portuguese was well and
    truly established as the national language.

    Still, many words remain from the Indian and African languages. From Tupi-Guarani come lots of place names
    (e.g. Guanabara, Carioca, Tijuca and Niterói), animal names (e.g.
    piranha, capivara and urubu) and plant names
    (e.g. mandioca, abacaxi, caju
    and jacarandá). Words from the African dialects, mainly those from Nigeria and
    Angola, are used in Afro-Brazilian religious ceremonies (e.g. Orixá, Exu and Iansã), cooking (e.g.
    vatapá, acarajé and
    abará) and in general conversation (e.g.
    samba, mocambo and moleque).

    Within Brazil, accents, dialects and slang
    (gíria) vary regionally. The
    Carioca inserts the "sh" sound in place of
    "s’. The Gaúcho speak a Spanish-sounding Portuguese, the
    Baiano (from Bahia) speak slowly and the accents of
    the Cearense (from Ceará) are often incomprehensible to outsiders.

    Portuguese is similar to Spanish on paper, but sounds completely different. You will do quite well if you speak
    Spanish in Brazil. Brazilians will understand what you say, but you won’t get much of what they say. So don’t think
    studying Portuguese is a waste of time. Listen to language tapes and develop an ear for Portuguese—it’s a
    beautiful-sounding language.

    Brazilians are very easy to befriend, but unfortunately the vast majority of them speak little or no English. This
    is changing, however, as practically all Brazilians in school are learning English. All the same, don’t count on finding
    an English speaker, especially out of the cities. The more Portuguese you speak, the more you will get out of your trip.

    Most phrasebooks are not very helpful. Their vocabulary is often dated and they contain the Portuguese spoken
    in Portugal, not Brazil. Notable exceptions are Lonely Planet’s
    Brazilian Phrasebook, and a Berlitz phrasebook for
    travel in Brazil. Make sure any English-Portuguese dictionary is a Brazilian Portuguese one.

    If you’re more intent on learning the language, try the US Foreign Service Institute (FSI) tape series. It comes in
    two volumes. Volume 1, which includes 23 cassettes and accompanying text, costs $130 and covers pronunciation,
    verb tenses and essential nouns and adjectives. Volume 2 includes 22 tapes with text and sells for $115. It includes
    some useful phrases and a travel vocabulary.

    For fluent Spanish speakers, FSI also has Portuguese-From Spanish to Portuguese,
    which consists of two tapes and a text explaining similarities and differences between these languages. This one costs $20. To get hold of these,
    write to or call the National Audiovisual Center (301) 763-1896, Information Services PF, 8700 Edgeworth Drive,
    Capitol Heights, Maryland, USA, 20743-3701.

    In Australia, most foreign-language and travel bookstores stock a range of material, from the basic "Travel Pack"
    with a phrase book and two tapes for A$35, to a condensed version of the FSI tapes. A condensed version of the FSI
    tapes is available from Learn Australia Pty Ltd (008) 338-183, 726 High St, East Kew, Victoria, 3102. Twelve 90-minute
    tapes cost A$195. The `Living Language’ course is in-between, and it includes phrases, vocabulary, grammar
    and conversation. The manual and CD cost A$50.

    Combine these with a few Brazilian samba tapes and some Jorge Amado novels and you’re ready to begin the
    next level of instruction on the streets of Brazil. If that doesn’t suffice, it’s easy to arrange tutorial instruction through
    any of the Brazilian American institutes where Brazilians go to learn English, or at the IBEU (Instituto Brasil
    Estados Unidos) in Rio.

    Portuguese has masculine and feminine forms of nouns and adjectives. Alternative gender endings to words
    appear separated by a slash, the masculine form first. Generally, "o" indicates masculine and "a" indicates feminine.


    Greetings & Civilities

    Hello

    Goodbye

    Good morning

    Good afternoon

    Good evening

    Please

    Thank you (very much)

    Yes

    No

    Maybe

    Excuse me.

    I am sorry.

    How are you?

    I’m fine thanks.


    Oi

    Tchau

    Bom dia

    Boa tarde

    Boa noite

    Por favor

    (Muito) obrigado

    (males)

    (Muito) obrigada

    (females)

    Sim

    Não

    Talvez

    Com licença

    Desculpe (me perdoe).

    (lit: forgive me)

    Como vai você/Tudo bem?

    Vou bem, obrigado/a .

    Tudo bem, obrigado/a.


    Language Difficulties


    Please write it down.

    Please show me (on the map).

    I (don’t) understand.

    I (don’t) speak Portuguese.

    Do you speak English?

    Does anyone speak English?

    How do you say… in Portuguese?

    I have a visa/permit.


    Escreva por favor.

    Por favor, me mostre (no mapa).

    Eu (não) entendo.

    Eu (não) falo português.

    Você fala inglês?

    Alguém fala inglês?

    Como você diz… em português?

    Eu tenho um visto/uma licença.



    Paperwork


    Passport

    Surname

    Given name

    Date of birth

    Place of birth

    Nationality

    Male/Female


    Passaporte

    Sobrenome

    Nome

    Data de nascimento

    Local de nascimento

    Nacionalidade

    Masculino/Feminino


    Small Talk


    What is your name?

    My name is…

    I’m a tourist/student.

    Where/What country are you from?

    I am from…

    How old are you?

    I am… years old.

    Are you married?

    Do you like…?

    I (don’t) like…

    I like it very much.

    May I?

    It’s all right/No problem.



    Qual é seu nome?

    Meu nome é…

    Eu sou um turista/estudante.

    De onde/De que país você é?

    Eu sou…

    Quantos anos você tem ?

    Eu tenho… anos.

    Você é casado/a?

    Você gosta de… ?

    Eu (não) gosto de…

    Eu gosto muito.

    Posso?

    Está tudo bem/Não há problema.



    Getting Around


    I want to go to…

    I want to book a seat for…

    What time does the

    … leave/arrive?

    Where does the…

    leave from?

    bus

    tram

    train

    boat

    ferry

    The train is…

    Delayed

    Cancelled

    On time

    Early

    Ferry (sometimes called balsa)

    How long does the trip take?

    Do I need to change?

    You must change trains/platform

    One-way (ticket)

    Return (ticket)

    Station

    Ticket

    Ticket office

    Timetable

    I would like to hire a…

    Bicycle

    Motorcycle

    Car

    Guide

    Horse



    Eu quero ir para…

    Eu quero reservar um assento para…

    A que horas… sai/chega?

    De one o/a… sai?

    ônibus

    bonde

    trem

    Barco

    Ferry (sometimes called balsa)

    Avião

    O trem está…

    Atrasado

    Cancelado

    Na hora

    adiantado

    Quanto tempo a viagem demora?

    Eu preciso trocar?

    Você precisa trocar de trem/plataforma

    Passagem de ida

    Passagem de volta

    Estação

    Passagem

    Bilheteria

    Horário

    Eu gostaria de alugar

    Um/uma…

    Bicicleta

    Moto

    Carro

    Guia

    cavalo


    Directions


    How do I get to…?

    Where is…?

    Is it near/far?

    What…is this/

    Street/road

    House number

    Suburb

    Town

    Go straight ahead

    Turn left

    Turn right

    At the traffic lights

    At the next corner

    Up/down

    Behind/opposite

    Here/there

    East

    West

    North

    South



    Como eu chego a…?

    Aonde é…?

    É perto/longe?

    O que é… isto?

    Rua/estrada

    Número da casa

    Bairro

    Cidade

    Vá em frente

    Vire à esquerda

    Vire à direita

    No farol

    Na próxima esquina

    Acima/abaixo

    Atrás/em frente

    Aqui/lá

    Leste

    Oeste

    Norte

    Sul


    Accommodation


    I’m looking for the…

    Youth hostel

    Camping ground

    Hotel

    Guesthouse

    Manager

    Owner

    What is the address?

    Do you have a…

    Available?

    Bed

    Cheap room

    Single room

    Double room

    Room with two beds

    For one/two nights

    How much is it per night/per person?

    Is service/breakfast included?

    Can I see the room?

    It is very…

    Dirty

    Noisy

    Expensive

    Where is the toilet?

    I am/We are leaving now

    Do you have…?

    A clean sheet

    Hot water

    A key

    A shower



    Eu estou procurando o/a…

    Albergue da juventude

    Camping

    Hotel

    Ousada

    Gerente

    Dono

    Qual é o endereço?

    Você tem um/uma…

    Para alugar?

    Cama

    Quarto barato

    Quarto de solteiro

    Quarto de casado

    Quarto com duas camas

    Para uma/duas noites

    Quanto é por noite/por pessoa?

    O serviço/café de manhã está incluído?

    Posso ver o quarto?

    É muito…

    Sujo

    Barulhento

    Caro

    Aonde é o banheiro?

    Eu estou/Nós estamos saindo agora

    Você tem…?

    Um lençol limpo

    Água quente

    Uma chave

    Um chuveiro




    Around Town

    Where is the/a…?

    Bank

    Exchange office

    City center

    Embassy

    Hospital

    Market

    Post office

    Public toilet

    Restaurant

    Telephone center


    Aonde é o/a…?

    Banco

    Casa de câmbio

    Centro da cidade

    Embaixada

    Hospital

    Mercado/feira

    Correio

    Banheiro público

    Restaurante

    Telefônica


    Tourism office


    I’d like to change some…

    Money

    Travelers’ checks

    Bridge

    Cathedral

    Church

    Fort

    Lake

    Main square

    Old city

    Palace

    Ruins

    Square

    Tower


    Posto de informações turísticas


    Eu gostaria de trocar

    Um pouco de…

    Dinheiro

    Checks de viagem

    Ponte

    Catedral

    Igreja

    Forte

    Lago

    Praça principal

    Cidade velha

    Palácio

    Ruínas

    Praça

    Torre


    Food


    Breakfast

    Lunch

    Dinner

    Set menu

    Food stall

    Grocery store

    Delicatessen

    Restaurant

    I am hungry/thirsty

    I would like the set lunch please

    Is service included in the bill?

    I am a vegetarian

    I would like some

    Another… please

    I don’t eat…

    Beer

    Bread

    Chicken

    Coffee

    Eggs

    Fish

    Food

    Fruit

    Meat

    Milk

    Mineral water

    Pepper

    Salt soup

    Sugar

    Tea

    Vegetables

    Wine



    Café da manhã

    Almoço

    Jantar

    Refeição

    Barraca de comida

    Mercearia

    Confeitaria

    Restaurante

    Eu estou com fome/sede

    Eu gostaria do prato feito por favor

    O serviço esta incluído na conta?

    Eu sou vegetariano/a

    Eu gostaria de algum/a

    Outro/a… por favor

    Eu não como…

    Cerveja

    Pão

    Frango

    Café

    Ovos

    Peixe

    Comida

    Frutas

    Carne

    Leite

    Água mineral

    Pimenta

    Sal

    Sopa

    Açúcar

    Chá

    Verduras

    Vinho


    Shopping


    How much does it cost?

    I would like to buy it

    It’s too expensive for me

    Can I look at it

    I’m just looking

    I’m looking for…

    A chemist

    Clothing

    Souvenirs

    Do you take travelers’ checks/credit cards?

    Do you have another color/size?

    Big/bigger

    Small/smaller

    More/less

    Cheap/cheaper


    Quanto custa?

    Eu gostaria de comprar

    É muito caro para mim

    Posso ver?

    Só estou olhando

    Estou procurando

    Uma farmácia

    Roupas

    Lembanças

    Você aceita checks de viagem/cartões de crédito?

    Você tem outra cor/tamanho?

    Grande/maior

    Pequeno/menor

    Mais/menos

    Barato/mais barato



    Times & Dates


    What time is it?

    It’s…

    1:15

    1:30

    1:45

    O’clock

    In the morning

    In the evening

    When?

    Yesterday

    Today

    Tonight

    Tomorrow

    Day after tomorrow

    Morning

    Afternoon

    Night

    All day

    Every day


    Sunday

    Monday

    Tuesday

    Wednesday

    Thursday

    Friday

    Saturday


    January

    February

    March

    April

    May

    June

    July

    August

    September

    October

    November

    December



    Que horas são

    São

    Uma e quinze

    Uma e meia

    Uma e quarenta e cinco

    Horas

    Da manhã

    Da noite

    Quando?

    Ontem

    Hoje

    Hoje de noite

    Amanhã

    Depois de amanhã

    De manhã

    De tarde

    De noite

    Todo o dia

    Todos os dias


    Segunda-feira

    Terça-feira

    Quarta-feira

    Quinta-feira

    Sexta-feira

    Sábado


    Janeiro

    Fevereiro

    Março

    Abril

    Maio

    Junho

    Julho

    Agosto

    Setembro

    Outubro

    Novembro

    Dezembro



    Numbers

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    13

    14

    15

    16

    17

    18

    19

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    1000

    one million


    zero

    um/um

    dois/duas

    três

    quatro

    cinco

    seis (when quoting telephone

    or house numbers, Brazilians

    will often say meia instead of seis)

    sete

    oito

    nove

    dez

    onze

    doze

    treze

    catorze

    quinze

    dezesseis

    dezessete

    dezoito

    dezenove

    vinte

    trinta

    quarenta

    cinqüenta

    sessenta

    setenta

    oitenta

    noventa

    cem

    mil

    um milhão

    first

    last

    primeiro

    último


    Health


    I’m allergic to penicillin/antibiotics

    I’m…

    Diabetic

    Epileptic

    Asthmatic

    Antiseptic

    Aspirin

    Condoms

    Contraceptive

    Diarrhea

    Medicine

    Nausea

    Sunblock cream




    Eu sou alérgico/a penicilina/antibióticos

    Eu sou…

    Diabético/a

    Epilético/a

    Asmático/a

    Antiséptico

    Aspirina

    Camisinhas

    Contraceptivo

    Diarréia

    Remédio

    Náusea

    Creme de proteção solar

    Absorventes internos




    Emergencies


    Help!

    Go away!

    Call a doctor!

    Call the police!


    Socorro!

    Vá embora!

    Chame o médico

    Chame a polícia!


    Slang

    Brazilians pepper their language with strange oaths and odd expressions. Literal translations are in brackets:


    Hello!

    Everything OK?

    Everything’s OK

    That’s great/cool!

    That’s bad/Shit!

    Great/Cool/OK

    My God!

    It’s crazy/You’re

    Crazy

    Gosh

    Whoops!

    Wow!

    You said it!

    I’m mad at…

    Is there a way?

    There’s always a way

    (curse word)

    shooting the breeze

    marijuana

    guy

    girl

    money

    bum

    bald

    a mess

    a fix/troublesome

    problem

    the famous

    `Brazilian bikini’


    Oi!

    Tudo bem?

    Tudo bom

    Chocante!

    Merda!

    ‘tá lógico/’tá

    ótimo/’tá legal!

    Meu deus!

    `tá louco!

    Nossa! (Our Lady!)

    Opa!

    Oba!

    Falou!

    Eu estou chateado

    Com…

    Tem jeito?

    Sempre tem jeito

    Palavrão!

    Batendo um papo

    Fumo (smoke)

    Cara

    Garota

    Grana

    Bum-bum/bunda

    Careca

    Bagunça

    Abacaxi

    Fio dental (dental floss)


    Body Language


    Brazilians accompany their speech with a rich body language, a sort of parallel dialogue. The thumbs up of
    tudo bem



    is used as a greeting, or to signify `OK’ or `Thank you.’ The authoritative
    não, não finger-wagging is most
    intimidating when done right under someone’s nose, but it’s not a threat. The sign of the
    figa, a thumb inserted between the first and second fingers of a clenched fist, is a symbol of good luck that has been derived from an African sexual
    charm. It’s more commonly used as jewelry than in body language. To indicate
    rápido (speed and haste), thumb and
    middle finger touch loosely while rapidly shaking the wrist. If you don’t want something
    (não quero), slap the back of your hands as if ridding yourself of the entire affair. Touching a finger to the lateral corner of the eye means `I’m wise
    to you.’



    VISAS & EMBASSIES

    At the time of writing, Brazilian visas were necessary for visitors who were citizens of countries which required
    visas for visitors from Brazil. American, Canadian, French, Australian and New Zealand citizens required visas, but
    UK citizens did not. Tourist visas are issued by Brazilian diplomatic offices and are valid for arrival in Brazil within 90
    days of issue and then for a 90-day stay in Brazil. They are renewable in Brazil for an additional 90 days.


    It should only take about three hours to issue a visa, but you need a passport valid for at least six months, a
    single passport photograph (either B/W or color) and either a round-trip ticket or a statement from a travel agent,
    addressed to the Brazilian diplomatic office, stating that you have the required ticketing. If you only have a one-way ticket
    they may accept a document from a bank or similar organization proving that you have sufficient funds to stay and buy
    a return ticket, but it’s probably easier to get a letter from a travel agent stating that you have a round-trip ticket.

    Visitors under 18 years of age must submit a notarized letter of authorization from their parents or a legal guardian.


    Tourist Card

    When you enter Brazil, you will be asked to fill out a tourist card, which has two parts. Immigration officials will
    keep one part, and the other will be attached to your passport. When you leave Brazil, this will be detached from
    your passport by immigration officials. Make sure you don’t lose your part of the card whilst travelling around Brazil. If
    you do lose your portion, your departure could be delayed until officials have checked your Story. For added
    security, make a photocopy of your section of the tourist card and keep this in a safe place, separate from your passport.

    Whilst researching we crossed the Brazilian border many times. At one stage, whilst travelling from Brazil to
    Uruguay, we missed the fact that the requisite part of our tourist card had not been collected on departure. Several weeks
    later, when we arrived at Ponta Porã on the Paraguay-Brazil border, the immigration authorities explained that we had
    not technically left Brazil! After considerable cogitation and some friendly banter, the officials asked us to make a
    certified deposition concerning the details of our "disappearance’. Then the old cards were doctored, and we were issued
    with new cards.


    Visa Extensions

    The Polícia Federal handles visa extensions and they have offices in the major Brazilian cities. You must go to
    them before your visa lapses, or suffer the consequences. Don’t leave it until the last minute either. Go for an extension
    about 15 days before your current visa expires. The tourist office can tell you where they are. In most cases a visa
    extension seems to be pretty automatic but sometimes they’ll only give you 60 days. The police may require a ticket out of
    the country and proof of sufficient funds, but this seems to be entirely at the discretion of the police officer.

    When applying for an extension, you will be told to go to a
    papelaria (stationery shop) and buy a DARF
    form. (Sometimes this isn’t necessary; it depends on the office you go to.) After filling it out, you must then go to a
    Banco do Brasil (or another bank nearby) and pay a fee of about $12. You then return to the Polícia Federal with the
    DARF form stamped by the bank. The extension should then be routinely issued.

    If you opt for the maximum 90-day extension and then leave the country before the end of that period, you
    cannot return until the full 90 days have elapsed. So if you plan to leave and re-enter Brazil you must schedule your
    dates carefully.

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