An Ambassador of Brazilian Letters

     An Ambassador of Brazilian Letters

    "International
    literary meetings are indispensable, not only so that
    we can leave the provincialism of the Portuguese language since
    we write in a country that hardly reads our works, but also because
    we need to spend more time with other creators. We need to know
    from one another without facing the limitations of national boundaries."

    by: Glauco
    Ortolano


    Caught Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea:

    An interview with
    writer Deonísio da Silva

    I first met Deonísio
    da Silva in Mexico City while attending a writers’ conference in 1999. We
    were the only ones representing our native Brazil that year. Our delegation
    that was originally small, became even smaller when Rubem Fonseca was forced
    to cancel his participation due to health problems.

    With Fonseca’s absence,
    I felt an enormous responsibility over my shoulders, perhaps a little too
    heavy for a virtually unknown writer like myself. However, for my delight
    and relief, Deonísio permitted himself to be caught between the devil
    and the deep blue sea, which he did with great valor and grace, two characteristics
    I usually find also in his fictional characters.

    At that time in Mexico,
    Deonísio already belonged to a very select group of writers representing
    Brazil at Frankfurt and the Paris Book Fairs, both occasions in which Brazil
    was the featured nation. He had also already won at least two important literary
    prizes—one from Casa de Las Américas, when Nobel laureate
    José Saramago (Portugal) presided over the jury that gave first prize
    to Deonísio’s Avante Soldados, Para Trás (Forward Soldiers,
    Backwards), a historical novel about the controversial 19th Century war between
    Brazil and Paraguay, and the other for his other classic Teresa, a
    novel about the life of Saint Teresa D’Avila chosen by the Biblioteca Nacional,
    a Brazilian version of the Library of the Congress, as the best novel of the
    year.

    Deonísio is married
    to poet and linguist Soila Schreiber, who is not only a great poet and linguist
    but a dedicated hostess with a very keen sense of observation and good humor.
    She is the author of several books on her field of specialization and of poetry,
    most notably for Narrativas do Coração (Narratives of
    the Heart), who in the words of John Lyons, poet, translator and scholar (Oxford
    and The University of London), is a collection of very short poems that "emphasizes
    the power of poetry as an affirmation of the being".

    Deonísio is the
    third Brazilian author I have the pleasure to interview. The two previous
    authors, Ana Maria Machado and Paulo Coelho, have both become members of the
    prestigious Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Academy of Letters)
    in the last year. It wouldn’t come as a surprise to me, if Deonísio
    da Silva becomes its newest member in the near future. He is certainly well
    deserved of such honor not only for the caliber of his literature but also
    for what he represents for Brazilian letters today.

    Brazzil:
    Some critics regard Teresa as your most important novel to this day.
    Do you agree with that?

    Deonísio
    da Silva
    : I do, but the public does not. And the author is always
    the least indicated to evaluate his own books. In Brazil, writers are usually
    "abandoned children", "street kids" and their temptation
    is always that of falling into narcissism, which is devastating. It is either
    that or they become isolated in an Ivy Tower eating grass, because you as
    a Brazilian writer, you live this paradox too. People either read your work
    or you become forgotten. Paulo Coelho was the one among us who better understood
    this fatal truth.

    The Biblioteca Nacional
    do Brasil has selected Teresa as best novel of the year but unfortunately
    Teresa is, among all my books, the one that sells the least in Brazil.
    It was transposed to the theater and the actors and actresses came to me and
    said things like "I had never proffered such beautiful dialogues before",
    which made me cry, but it is in Avante Soldados, Para Trás (Forward
    Soldiers, Backwards) that I find my best seller. There have been seven editions
    just in Brazil. It was considered a difficult book, but thanks to Professor
    Flávio Loureiro who wrote a very elucidating preface it became easier
    to follow the plot.

    Brazzil:
    Since you are not simply a writer, but also a scholar in the field of literature,
    what tendencies do you observe in the present stage of Brazilian literature?

    Deonísio
    da Silva
    : Two very good ones. The woman went from character to author.
    Now she speaks with her own voice, interrupting that old masculine look over
    the feminine condition. The other one is that new writers are reading more.
    They are reading their older brothers like our generation did. This is as
    important to a new author as reading the classics, in order for him or her
    to establish important references.

    I never wanted to be the
    new "I-Don’t-Know-Who" but I have always been careful not to repeat
    others. I’ve always tried to make my own path under the light of those who
    came before me. I can’t pretend that writers like Machado de Assis, Graciliano
    Ramos, Lygia Fagundes Telles, Loyola Brandão, Rubem Fonseca, Cecília
    Meireles, João Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Nejar, and Mario Chamie
    never existed.

    There is a tendency I
    repute as the most fertile in our letters—the one that combines a strong
    involvement of our problems with the society, and I say, not only the Brazilian
    society but that of the world, although it should always be expressed under
    the light of Brazil. After all, we are Brazilian writers.

    "We cannot express
    Bosnia", said once Antônio Cândido, "for us Brazilians,
    our literature should be the most important one, because it is the only one
    that expresses ourselves." Among these writers, I like to cite Manoel
    Carlos Karam, Marçal Aquino, Moacir Japiassu, Luiz Antonio de Assis
    Brasil, Adriana Lunardi, Valesca de Assis, Plínio Cabral and Márcia
    Denser whose ages vary from thirty-something to the seventies.

    They are renovating Brazilian
    prose. We find among poets, Mário Chamie, Antonio Carlos Secchin, Fabrício
    Carpinejar, and Affonso Romano de Sant’Anna, all worth mentioning. Their works
    are very attentive to the Brazil of their times, not to mention the careful
    attention they pay to their crafted language.

    I also think about the
    work of Paulo Coelho, perhaps because his light is just so potent as an esoteric
    writer that I believe the works of Paulo Coelho are generous to other writers.
    It is like a great net that brings readers to other writers. The opposite
    is not true, for obvious reasons, I suppose.

    Brazzil: If
    you were to teach a course in Contemporary Brazilian Literature, what are
    some novelists you would select for your class to read?

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    Among contemporary writers, I would select novels by Rubem Fonseca,
    Lygia Fagundes Telles, Nélida Piñon, Valesca de Assis, Luiz
    Antonio de Assis Brasil, Manoel Carlos Karam, Ignácio de Loyola Brandão,
    Miguel Jorge, Márcio Souza, Moacir Japiassu, Plínio Cabral,
    Antonio Torres, Raimundo Carrero, Charles Kiefer, Lya Luft, Marçal
    Aquino, Rui Mourão, Patrícia Melo, Menalton Braff, Moacyr Scliar,
    Salim Miguel and most importantly, Betty Milan.

    Betty is the writer with
    the greatest conscience of her calling as a writer, not only within the text
    itself, but also in her literary life, meaning, novels like Clarão
    (Great Clearing), and O Papagaio e o Doutor (The Parrott and the Doctor).
    Betty who is also a psychoanalyst makes her characters look deeply into one
    another. But the one who sees everything with a panoptic look is the narrator,
    and in this art, Betty is a master.

    Brazzil: What
    if the genre selected for your course was short stories?

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    There are just so many excellent short story authors that I would
    first try to give students a more panoramic view to point out talented writers
    that are virtually unknown, before starting to give emphasis to those whose
    work I know better. And these would be works by Dalton Trevisan, Rubem Fonseca,
    Clarice Lispector, Caio Fernando Abreu, Luiz Vilela, Ignácio de Loyola
    Brandão, Moacyr Scliar, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, Lygia
    Fagundes Telles, Murilo Rubião, Aldyr Garcia Schlee, and Ana Maria
    Martins. And as you can see, there are great novelists who are also great
    short fiction writers.

    Brazzil: And
    if the course was about poetry?

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    The difficulties in regards to inclusion would increase. Brazilian
    poetry is going through an extraordinary phase, perhaps similar to the short
    story boom lived in the seventies and eighties. For this hypothetic course
    I’d include works by Alberto da Costa e Silva, João Cabral de Melo
    Neto, Carlos Nejar, Mário Chamie, Bruno Tolentino, Fabrício
    Carpinejar, Joany de Oliveira, and of course, Carlos Drummond de Andrade,
    Manuel Bandeira, Mário Quintana e Cecília Meireles.

    Brazzil: Let’s
    say a graduate student decides to study the author Deonísio da Silva,
    would you help him or her by telling a few names of Brazilian and world authors
    who had an influence on young Deonísio?

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    Machado de Assis evidently did influence all of us, I believe.
    But I like to proclaim that I have been more influenced by authors that were
    my contemporaries in my green years while they were already walking on the
    path that only much later would become known to me. Among them, the poet and
    prose writer Guilhermino César, my dear professor from the Federal
    University of Rio Grande do Sul at Porto Alegre. Besides being my teacher
    he was also a dear friend.

    I particularly like Lira
    Coimbrã e Portulano de Lisboa. There is also a great selection
    of his poems in Sistema do Imperfeito. I don’t know if I can evaluate
    the degree of influence some other writers had over me, but I like Osman Lins
    (especially in Avalovara); Jorge Amado (Dona Flor and her
    Two Husbands); Érico Veríssimo (Incidente em Antares);
    João Guimarães Rosa (Primeiras Estórias); Lygia
    Fagundes Telles (the novel A Noite Escura e Mais Eu, and the
    short stories in A Disciplina do Amor, and Seminário dos
    Ratos); Graciliano Ramos (São Bernardo); Adelino Magalhães
    (Casos e Impressões).

    I have also felt a strong
    influence from Romanceiro da Inconfidência by Cecília
    Meireles. Among the world authors, José Sararamago who fortunately
    writes in my own language, Gabriel García Márquez, Mário
    Vargas Llosa, and Alejo Carpentier. Among the French authors, there is that
    name that is synonymous of a writing lesson, Marguerite Youcenar, especially
    with her work Memories of Adrian.

    From North-American literature
    I’ve always liked Ernest Hemingway and Philip Roth. Among the Italians, I
    like to mention Cesare Pavese and Umberto Eco, mainly for his classic, The
    Name of the Rose, whose opening I know by heart because I think it’s simply
    beautiful. And of course, there is the eternal Jorge Luis Borges.

    But above all, the Bible,
    which is the book where I have found the most beautiful, creative, lively,
    imaginative and well-written stories ever. My model for a narrator, except
    for the opening that I find somewhat peculiar, is the simplicity of the Gospel
    according to Mathew combined with the sophistication and the synthesis of
    John, where we find the shortest verse of the Bible: "And Jesus wept."

    Brazzil: I
    was wondering if the fact that you are married to poet Soila Schreiber has
    had any influence in your writings. I’ve noticed that many passages of your
    books are of a purely poetic prose.

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    I am thankful for the judgment you make of my work. I am constantly
    and desperately seeking to create poetic prose every single day, but I must
    confess that it requires much practice and an enduring learning process which
    will never end. As soon as the book goes off the press, I’m the first to recognize
    certain errors I was not able to avoid, like the awkward tone or the banal
    trivialities of certain passages.

    However when Teresa
    was transposed to the theater and I heard the actors saying the dialogues,
    I thought they were very beautiful, but of course it is different when it
    is said by an actor. If they were indeed beautiful, they became even more
    beautiful. If they were not so beautiful, they would improve because of their
    talents.

    I try not to comment on
    the poetic view Soila has of the world. She is capable of conciliating the
    rigors of looking at things with that of expressing the world, which is by
    the way, a style that I’ve noticed she is not capable of having on her daily
    life. In life, she mixes things too much to the point of working against Horace’s
    maxim: fortiter in re, suaviter in modo (firm in purpose but soft in
    the way to obtain it).

    It is in poetry that Soila
    can be her real self. I find that very beautiful and for me a recent discovery.
    But the greatest contribution in every single sense that Soila has given to
    my life is our daughter Manuela. Although she is our only daughter, it was
    in the condition of a mother that Soila has achieved has greatest success.
    My daughter is an enchanting and intelligent individual, but mostly, someone
    who possesses the same kind of strength as of her mother’s.

    I think of myself as weaker
    than the two, mainly because I believe women are the best part of human nature
    as it can be found in Avante Soldados Pra Trás. Without women,
    to where would the love of men go? I refer here, of course, to all kinds of
    love, including paternal love.

    If I were not a father,
    I would be only half a man. The narrator in Teresa says at the end
    of the novel: "The darkest and saddest nights are the ones without love.
    The Lord has given me such nights so that I can appreciate the other ones."

    Brazzil: We
    met each other during that memorable international meeting in Mexico. How
    important do you think those meetings are for the penetration of Brazilian
    literature abroad?

    Deonísio da
    Silva:
    They are indispensable, not only so that we can leave the provincialism
    of the Portuguese language since we write in a country that hardly reads our
    works, but also because we need to spend more time with other creators. We
    need to know from one another without facing the limitations of national boundaries.
    On that occasion I met lusophone writers from Portugal, the U.S. and Africa,
    as well as Spanish-American writers with whom I still maintain very enriching
    dialogues, such as the conversations and letters I’ve shared with this writer
    and professor who is now interviewing me.

    As García Márquez
    once said, "The main function of these meetings is that of producing
    the next one." We need to return to that kind of enjoyable
    and enriching ambiance. We and our readers can profit tremendously from these
    experiences, because we certainly leave these meeting more qualified and more
    enthusiastic about our role as writers, which according to great Érico
    Veríssimo, is the role of turning on a lighter into darkness.


    Glauco Ortolano is a poet, novelist, essayist, translator, and scholar who
    is currently teaching Brazilian language, literature, and film in the Centre
    International des Langues at the University of Nantes. He welcomes comments
    at ortolanos@hotmail.com.

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