Brazilian Flood: 116 Dead and No Place to Rebuild

    Rains in Brazil

    Rains in Brazil "This is the worst climatic tragedy of Santa Catarina's history," said governor Luiz Henrique da Silveira. Strong rains have been pushing his state in the south of Brazil for over two months now. In the last 10 days, however, the floods have become extremely destructive, destroying whole towns and leaving over 100 dead people. Brazil's National Security Force has been sent to the area. 

    According to numbers that keep going up by the hour, over 79,000 people are homeless, 114 have died from which at least eight were children aged less than 10, and 19 are listed as disappeared. More than 1.5 million have been affected by the rains.

    Just this Sunday night it was confirmed the death of a child and woman due to a new landslide in Luiz Alves in the Itajaí­ Valley. Heavy rains are also hitting now Rio de Janeiro, where at least two people have already died and Espí­rito Santo and the number of those left homeless in the three states surpass 85,000.

    Weather forecasts call for more rain, with short dry spells, until December 5. Twelve cities have been declared state of public calamity. They are: Benedito Novo, Blumenau, Brusque, Camboriú, Gaspar, Ihota, Itajaí­, Itapoá, Luis Alves, Nova Trento, Rio dos Cedros and Rodeio.

    The arrival of a cold front this week bringing more rain to the area should not only hinder help and rescue operations but also hurt the logistics to distribute food and medicine.

    Recent weather studies in the region show that Santa Catarina has seen drastic changes, in recent years, in its standard climatic conditions. Since 2006 the state has experienced an increase in heavy rainfall as well as a longer drought season. Besides global warming, the area has to deal with two other factors: unplanned urban growth and uncontrolled deforestation.

    Meteorologist Gislânia Cruz revealed that the amount of rain in the Blumenau area was over 900 millimeters (35 inches) in November. The average rainfall for this period is 110 millimeters (4.3 inches).

    Some experts believe that the main reason for the large number of deaths is not the rain but the way risky areas were irregularly occupied. Landslides this time caused more damages than the ones brought by the 1984 floods.

    Experts from the Geological Institute and the Institute of Technological Studies of São Paulo were in Blumenau, one of the cities hit the most by the rainfalls to analyze the terrain. They concluded that 60% of the inspected areas cannot have houses rebuilt.

    On Saturday, Brazilian Air Force planes carried to the town of Navegantes part of the structure to be used to build a campaign hospital in the Itajaí­-Ilhota stretch of the interstate road that links the Brazilian south to São Paulo, the BR-101. The temporary construction is to assist the population most affected by the rains in the state.

    The Air Force Campaign Hospital is supposed to start seeing patients this Monday, December 1st. The 40 health professionals, including doctors, nurses and aides, who will staff the place have already arrived on Saturday.

    According to the Civil Defense, business hours will be from 8 am to 4 pm while the area needs extra medical care. Among the doctors there are a mouth surgeon and physicians specialized in orthopedics, gynecology, anesthetics and pediatrics.

    Santa Catarina's Health Department is accepting donations of material to fight leptospirosis, a common infectious disease in flooded areas. Among the items needed are galosh-type boots, gloves, and hypochlorite for cleansing and disinfection. Gauze and bandaid are also accepted, as long as in sealed packages.

    Volunteers with experience in health, including doctors, nurses and psychologists are also being recruited. They are invited to apply for the position at the site www.saude.sc.gov.br.

    Donations for the flood victims have already surpassed 3.5 million Brazilian reais (US$ 1.52 million), according to the Civil Defense. More than 800 tons of food and over 50 tons of clothes have also been received.

    The situation in Itajaí­ is heart-wrenching. For more than a week shops have been closed and people didn't have a way to buy groceries or to withdraw money from the bank. Restaurants had no food and hotels were without water.

    The bodies of the dead were so numerous that the Coroner's Office (IML, Medicolegal Institute) had no place for all of them. They were lacking even body bags used to wrap the deceased.

    Firemen were so overwhelmed they were not finding time to rest. Some were sleeping not more than an hour and a half a day, stretching in any place they could find for a little nap. On Wednesday, the governor of Santa Catarina declared official mourning of three days.

    Lino Bragança Peres, a professor at the Architecture and Urbanism Department of Santa Catarina's Federal University, believes that the deforestation of the Atlantic forest may have contributed to the disaster brought in by the rainfalls.

    "The trees were substituted by houses and underbrush," he explains, "something that contributed to the erosion. These landslides would occur sooner or later, the strong rainfalls of the last two months only accelerated that process."

    The Atlantic forest (Mata Atlântica) used to cover an area of about 1.29 million square kilometers (498 million square miles), in 17 Brazilian states, including Santa Catarina. The biome took up about 15% of the Brazilian territory. Nowadays, only 7% of this total remains intact.

    The Atlantic forest deforestation is directly linked to the growth of Brazilian cities. The professor  points out that the disorganized occupation by communities is another important factor for the tragedy.

    "It rained well above the average, but this is only part of the problem. The model of irregular occupation adopted by the cities from Itajaí­ Valley contributed to that occurrence. And everything with the public authority's tacit consent," stated Peres.

    According to the expert, the first houses in the region were built close to the rivers during the 19th century by Europeans who immigrated to Brazil. In the 20th century people started to also occupy hills and hillsides. Planning was something unknown. Says the professor, "Municipal planning started very late in Brazil, in the 1970s, when the cities had already grown."

    The solution would be to relocate those living on hillsides to safer locations. "The trouble, however," he says, "is that good part of the areas suitable for living are already been used."

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    • Show Comments (25)

    • Muahahahaha

      SIMONE 8K
      Simone Deveaux is so stuped!!!

    • du48

      ‘ The day Santa Catarina melted ‘ the gospel according to Luis Henrique Da Silveira (PMDB)
      An interesting slant on the SC floods.

      http://www.oeco.com.br/germano-woehl/85-germano-woehl/20434-o-dia-em-que-santa-catarina-derreteu

    • du48

      Caravelas aka Portuguese Man ‘o War-The sting in the tail and the race against time
      Florianopolis has not been so badly affected as the mainland but there are long tailbacks on the sc 401 during the day while the landslide is removed and the potholes are being filled -in front of the State Administration Offices further down the road. Holidaymakers ,commuter traffic and service trucks steadily increase but the hoteliers are concerned that bookings are already down as a result of the the storms and are anxious about the prospects for the high season after Christmas.The media are doing their best to put on a brave face but the coastal beaches are suffering from flooding, over- flowing rivers and streams and now strong winds and high tides washing up not just jellyfish….. Some areas famous for oysterbeds have been wiped out.The signs are ominous, to say the least.

    • asp

      …actualy make that a ciclone sub tropical…

      the proof is on the beach , the exceptualy strong currants have brought a huge amount of agua vivos,jelly fish. epecialy the caravelos , the ones bubled up out of the water, to the shore. many are torn in many bits and peices indicating violent activity out at sea. if it was just volcano clouds, you wouldnt see so many waxhed ashore. it does happen every year, but, i never saw so many washed ashore and torn to bits as this time

    • asp

      the truth is , the problem about the weather in santa catarina is caused by a high preasure system above bahia that is not letting cold fronts pass through. and, there is a cyclone anti tropical blowing off the south west coast of santa catarina. since the high preasure system is not letting the cold fronts pass, the bad weather just keeps coming and coming

      ive seen this many times, except that the high preasure system extends all the way down below santa catarian and doesnt let fronts pass. like in 2006, which had tremendous beach weather all year. when brasilia is extremly dry and suffering, santa catarina goes well

      this rain reminds me of horrible rainy periods in the 90’s, that just wouldn stop. but, thjis is the worst ive ever seen. this was rain from hell, just never stopped. it wasnt heavy wind rain that is really bad too, but, just straight up horrible non stop rain

      i agree with ch c every one wants to blame global warming. if its too much rain, its global warming, if its draght , its global warming

    • Augustus

      joao
      You have received information…

    • João da Silva

      [quote]I presume the names quoted are politicians from SC[/quote]

      Yes, the one in your quote is the current (and reelected) Mayor of the Capital.

      [quote]I’M SPEACHLESS [/quote]

      I am posting below a link that you may find interesting:

      [url]http://deolhonacapital.blogspot.com/[/url]

      I suggest you bookmark this page and read it everyday so that you will become more speechless. 🙁

    • Augustus

      Shockin comments
      I’M SPEACHLESS
      [quote]era preciso deixar Santa Catarina pronta para os turistas. DÀƒ¡rio Berger, avisando em SÀƒ£o Paulo que as praias de FlorianÀƒ³polis nÀƒ£o foram atingidas[/quote]
      Yet, I’m not familiar with the names of the people mentioned in the article
      I wish I knew the names of governors of main states (SOUTH & SOUTHEAST) as well as mayors of the main cities – I presume the names quoted are politicians from SC

    • João da Silva

      [quote]Yes, there were plans to prevent flooding along the Itajai river but of course nothing happened. [/quote]

      Yes, some responsible professionals had come out with plans after the devastating floods of 1983/84. The plans remained just on paper.

      [quote]In the reconstruction of Santa Catarina maybe now the word accountability will take on a new meaning.[/quote]

      I wish I could share your optimism.

      [quote]The solidarity and respect expressed for 80,000 homeless people needs to be mirrored by all those who are elected at federal, state and municipal level.
      PLANNING for housing is now essential if further disasters are to be avoided.Nothing less is acceptable.
      [/quote]

      During the municipal elections in October of this year, there was this young Engineer who was a candidate for the city council. He stood on the platform of [i]proper[/i] Urban Planning. Most of his ideas were simple,but brilliant and practical. He got a sound thrashing and did not get elected. IMHO, these 80,000 people will soon be forgotten and the “elected officials” will continue shelving good plans and still keep on getting reelected.

    • ch.c.

      when you ask poor people to give they havbe to look at what they have .
      Of course !
      What about those with money even if they are the minority ?
      Results : STILLL MUCH MUCH LESS than ONE US DOLLAR GIVEN BY EVERY NON POOR BRAZILIAN !

      Sorry Forrest but you hide the reality in a dark forest….hard to swallow !

      Is there not around 25 – 35 % of the population with decent income or more….in Brazil ?

      Come on….come on !!!!!

    • du48

      It’s called planning as in ‘urban’
      Only the most terrible tragedies will have to take place in order to concentrate the minds of those with political responsibility and industrial power.Brazil is no exception.
      Yes, there were plans to prevent flooding along the Itajai river but of course nothing happened.
      In the reconstruction of Santa Catarina maybe now the word accountability will take on a new meaning.
      The solidarity and respect expressed for 80,000 homeless people needs to be mirrored by all those who are elected at federal, state and municipal level.
      PLANNING for housing is now essential if further disasters are to be avoided.Nothing less is acceptable.

    • João da Silva

      Augustus
      FYI:

      [quote] À¢€œTurismo

      O governador Luiz Henrique da Silveira instituiu este ano o PrÀƒªmio Beto Carrero de ExcelÀƒªncia em Turismo. A escolha Àƒ© feita pelo Conselho Estadual de Turismo, cujos membros sÀƒ£o nomeados pelo governador Luiz Henrique. O resultado oficial foi anunciado esta tarde. Escolhido na categoria Personalidade? O governador Luiz Henrique.À¢€Â

      Alertado por uma amiga, que me ligou espantadÀƒ­ssima, fui ler. Tive que ler duas vezes. NÀƒ£o acreditei e li a terceira vez. E Àƒ© exatamente isto que parece ÀƒÂ  primeira vista.

      Sob a presidÀƒªncia do incansÀƒ¡vel Fernando Marcondes de Matos, o Conselho nomeado pelo LHS outorgou-lhe um prÀƒªmio criado pelo prÀƒ³prio LHS. Decerto pelas declaraÀƒ§Àƒµes de que era preciso deixar Santa Catarina pronta para os turistas. DÀƒ¡rio Berger, avisando em SÀƒ£o Paulo que as praias de FlorianÀƒ³polis nÀƒ£o foram atingidas, foi um concorrente forte, mas nÀƒ£o conseguiu superar o mestre.

      No texto oficial, da Secretaria do Knaesel, o absurdo fica ainda mais inacreditÀƒ¡vel, quase surrealista: aqui.

      Claro, porque nÀƒ£o foi sÀƒ³ o LHS, criador do trofÀƒ©u, que o recebeu. O Parque Beto Carrero tambÀƒ©m foi premiado, na categoria empreendimento turÀƒ­stico, com o trofÀƒ©u Beto Carrero! E, como se fosse surpresa, como melhor municÀƒ­pio quem levou o prÀƒªmio foi… FlorianÀƒ³polis!

      Que coisa impressionante. Parece piada. Soa como brincadeira. Mas Àƒ© apenas deboche.[/quote]

      Nero is playing the fiddle, while Rome is burning. 😉

    • Augustus

      More information on the YEAR WITHOUT SUMMER-1816 — DUE TO MOUNT TAMBORA EXPLOSTION IN 1815
      ALL – AGAIN DEPENDING ON HOW MASSIVE THE EXPLOSION WAS (I DO NOT KNOW – PERHAPS FOREST MAY CLARIFY) THE EFFECTS REMAIN FOR YEARS!!!!

      It is now generally thought that the aberrations occurred because of the 5 April À¢€“ 15 April, 1815 volcanic eruptions of Mount Tambora,[7][8] the world’s largest eruption in at least 1,600 years (Lake Taupo’s Hatepe eruption of c. 180 AD was probably just as big[clarify]), on the island of Sumbawa in the Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia) which ejected immense amounts of volcanic dust into the upper atmosphere. The fact that the eruptions occurred during the middle of the Dalton Minimum (a period of unusually low solar activity) is also significant.

      The Year Without a Summer (also known as the Poverty Year, the Year There Was No Summer, or Eighteen hundred and froze to death) was 1816, in which severe summer climate abnormalities destroyed crops in Northern Europe, the American Northeast and eastern Canada.[1][2] Historian John D. Post has called this “the last great subsistence crisis in the Western world”.[3] It appears to have been caused by a volcanic winter.

      FULL DETAILS ==> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Year_Without_a_Summer

    • João da Silva

      Jon
      [quote]Two bank accounts opened by Santa Catarina state authorities to receive donations got 776.8 million dollars from anonymous donors across the country.[/quote]

      It is a news to me, Jon. Thanks for quoting “alternative sources of information” to give us this fabulous news. Any chance that Harpy would donate 7 Billion Canuck dollars and still remain anonymous? 😀

      BTW, Globo is not CBC and El Ninho ( Pronounced as such) is certainly not responsible. You better pay attention to the comments of Forrest, Ch.c and Lord Augustus (mine too). Forrest and I have been exchanging info regarding this during the past 2 months. Only a very few people have the ability to forecast what is going to happen based on past and present data and a large majority is clueless and justifies with some idiotic explanations as why it happened.

      Good to hear from ya, though. Hope in the Arctic Hell of yours, the ice is not melting. 😀

    • jon

      The writing on the wall…
      The rains that devastated 30 towns in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina could be an early consequence of global warming, a climatologist from the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) said Friday.

      At least 99 people died and 80,000 had to be evacuated because of the rains and subsequent flooding. Santa Catarina was hit by a hurricane in 2004 and is frequently affected by tornadoes.

      Climatologist Carlos Nobre told Globo TV that heavy, persistent rains in southern Brazil usually coincide with the climate phenomenon known as El Nino, which warms up the Pacific Ocean. However, this was not the case this year.

      “In the years when the El Nino phenomenon does not happen, like now, and there are very intense rains, their causes still remain mysterious for meteorology. It is already possible to start to identify some relationship with global warming, both in the increase of intense rain and in the drought in the south,” he said.

      According to Nobre, southern Brazil is more vulnerable to climatic problems, as it is here that warm, humid air coming from the north converges with cold, dry masses from the south.

      Some experts noted that problems in southern Brazil could also be linked to deforestation in Amazonia.

      There has been an outpouring of support for the Santa Catarina victims, including donations from Brazilian Formula 1 driver Felipe Massa, former tennis world number one Gustavo Kuerten and several football teams.

      The Brazilian government provided 733 million dollars to help victims, while the state-owned Federal Economic Bank made available 657 million dollars in loans so that affected people could buy material for construction, home appliances and furniture.

      Two bank accounts opened by Santa Catarina state authorities to receive donations got 776.8 million dollars from anonymous donors across the country.

    • João da Silva

      Forrest
      [quote]JOAO
      was my last paper to long or
      sharp to the point of just pissing off the powers at be
      as it was never posted even when i cut it up into 3 parts

      you give it a try !!!!! [/quote]

      I could read the entire post without any problem. I am reproducing your comment as below:

      [quote]it was for told
      written by forrest allen brown, December 01, 2008
      several weeks ago when the valcano went up in chile brasil was told that it would
      cause rain and a colder season .
      BUT as long as it did not hurt the rich nothing would be done about it .

      i even sent SIR JOAO pics of the whole thing .he understod what would happen
      but the powers at be thought what the heck no need to warn the people

      this si a lot less worse than huricane kartina and brasil cant even
      help the people
      WHAT IF BRASIL HAD THE OLIMPIC GAMES .
      AND SOME ONE PULLED A LNDA ATTIC ON THE GAMES
      WHAT TO DO[/quote]

      Was it that you wrote? If not, I suggest you e-mail me your comments, copy the same and post it in the site. I will compare your original post with the the one I receive through e-mail. I still think there is a problem with your browser. Lets check it out. It does not require the help of Bill Gates nor any Sorbonne graduate to fix it.

      😀

    • Augustus

      CH-C – The effect of Massive Volcanic Eruptions – various comments on previous cataclysmic events accross earth 4.6 billion years of existence
      After massive volcunic eruptions (depending on how massive), the increase in clouds & particles actually reduce the temperature.
      Globally the temperature keeps on risingand the hotest years 17 of the past 20 years (perhaps just 15 or 16) were the HOTEST years ever recorded. Of course this record keeping started in the end of the 19th century, so we do not have a lot of data.
      You are correct by stating the the planet’s temperature has risen & fallen repeatedly accross earth’s 4.6 billion years of existence. Yet, as you probably know the process is rather slow… In addition, the periods of relative rapid rise in temperature tend to be followed by sharp decreseses and the onset of yet another ice age (there has been several – but 2 of these one about 2.8 bllion and the other about 650 million years ago were so massive that the entire planet was frozen – the process called SNOW BALL EARTH – at the end of EACH ONE OF which singificant evolutionary jumps in life have occurred…)
      too much information, I’m just fascinated by this kind of subject.
      Earth has overcome so many major changes in climate, orbit, axis angle, astoroid impact – YOU NAME IT….
      The most interesting part is that the cataclysmic event which wiped out the dinos about 65 million years ago is a picnic (since only 65% of all life was eliminated) compared to A MUCH WORSE CATLACLYSMIC EVENT WHICH OCCURRED ABOUT 250 MILLION YEARS AGO which destroyed 98% – 98%!!!!!!! of all life…. just think about it….

    • ch.c.

      “Global Warming”, “No. It is called by Global Cooling”
      Let me be more clear on Global Warming :
      Proven that during the last decade…the world annual average temperature is DOWN…NOT UP despite the world higher industrial output !!!!!
      And that is why some “experts” changed from Global Warming warnings to…CLIMATE CHANGE…without being more specific !
      It seems ridiculous ! Yess…the ones still pretending and mixing up everything !
      Planet Earth already had in the past warming and cooling periods…well before man produced the first car or the first oil usage !
      And even on a far greater scale UP OR DOWN than today !

      But I dont criticize them too much either. Because it is a great opportunity to create not only better products, but this create new jobs by the millions and millions the world over ! And hundreds of billions US$ are directly already invested yearly…if we count all products made by humans !
      LYING FEARS are not always negative after all.

    • forrest allen brown

      CHC
      when you ask poor people to give they havbe to look at what they have .
      and what they give , not to deplet there food money or put themselves out
      and another one is the press in brasil did not cover it they more like covered it up until
      it got out of hand ,
      then and only then did it become the news .

      JOAO
      was my last paper to long or
      sharp to the point of just pissing off the powers at be
      as it was never posted even when i cut it up into 3 parts

      you give it a try !!!!!

      the out look is the valcano in chillie and columbia will have
      some thing to do with the weather for some time
      and if the one in columbia goes off instead of just smokeing

      i was in geridot columbia when thew last one went off blew the hole top
      off and made a saddle back out of itself .
      the melting snow and rain buried hundreds of people and homes
      some have never been found

    • João da Silva

      Augustus
      [quote]As a result 1816 is know as the YEAR WITHOUT SUMMER FOR EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA (Snow registered in august) – famine evertywhere)…[/quote]

      It is funny that you mentioned this. We have a sharp tongued Meteorologist who, when asked by a reporter if this phenomenon was caused by “Global Warming”, said “No. It is called by Global Cooling”. He is predicting a [i]very short[/i] summer with plenty of rains followed by months of drought, at least in the South.

    • ch.c.

      Desperate Times for Southern Brazil !
      Yesss it is !
      Just a memory refresh : DO BRAZILIANS RECALL HOW THEY CRICITIZED BOTH BUSH IN PARTICULAR AND AMERICANS IN GENERAL AFTER THE KATARINA HURRICANE ???????????????????????????????????????
      And a hurricane and dam breakage are much more violent than continuing and endless rains…especially in the intensity !

      Wellll…..when did Robin the Crook PAID his first visit to Santa Catarina ?
      Just re-read the above stated SMALL OVERALL donations….months after the floodings started to have devastative results !!!!
      When did the Brazilian Governments started to act ?
      When did the Brazilian Army started to intervene ??????

      Lets face it, Brazil is doing very very very very very little for Santa Catarina ….when compared to what Americans have done for New Orleans after KATARINA !!!!!

      AS USUAL….Brazilians have as it fit them…A SHORT MEMORY….ON PURPOSE !

      Who could prove me wrong ? Please do…in a very objective way ….if possible !

      Americans individuals and corporations donated BILLIONS OF US$ ! Thus far….Brazilians “Donations for the flood victims have already surpassed 3.5 million Brazilian reais (US$ 1.52 million)”
      You should underline the….ALREADY SURPASSED…….as if it was AN ENORMOUS GESTURE OF GENEROSITY AND SOLIDARITY !!!!!
      Whoaaaaaaaaaaaaa……US$ 1,5 million ALREADY SURPASSED !!!!!!
      This truly show the generous NATURAL Brazilians souls ! NOT EVEN….ONE CENT…PER CAPITA…THUS FAR !

      IMPRESSIVE…ISNT IT ??????

    • João da Silva

      Forrest
      [quote]i even sent SIR JOAO pics of the whole thing .he understod what would happen
      but the powers at be thought what the heck no need to warn the people
      [/quote]

      You may be happy to know that some “Powerless” ones took our advice and saved their skins! It is true. Nov 21,22 and 23 were bad days and they decided to stay home, instead of driving on highways!! Of course, I am not expecting their thanks for our joint effort in forewarning them. But, I would like to thank you for sending the info.

      One interesting story, you would like to hear: Some years ago, I was stopped on a highway which had been laid few weeks prior to that date, by a group of people who were commissioned by the government to take an opinion poll on the “Quality” of the engineering work. I was too honest to point out the defects and they were not too happy to hear my opinion especially about a stretch where I said a huge landslide was likely to occur. I always had a weird sensation while driving through that stretch. Guess what? My premonition came true at 6.30 P.M on Nov 23rd. A mountain of earth along with boulders fell right on top of the highway. They found just one vehicle so far and nobody knows how many others are buried underneath the mud.

    • Augustus

      VOLCANO – It depends on the intensity
      In 1816, the biggest volcanic explosion (sevaral times greater than Krakatoa in the 1880’s) was registered (also in Indonesia.
      As a result 1816 is know as the YEAR WITHOUT SUMMER FOR EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA (Snow registered in august) – famine evertywhere)…

    • forrest allen brown

      it was for told
      several weeks ago when the valcano went up in chile brasil was told that it would
      cause rain and a colder season .
      BUT as long as it did not hurt the rich nothing would be done about it .

      i even sent SIR JOAO pics of the whole thing .he understod what would happen
      but the powers at be thought what the heck no need to warn the people

      this si a lot less worse than huricane kartina and brasil cant even
      help the people
      WHAT IF BRASIL HAD THE OLIMPIC GAMES .
      AND SOME ONE PULLED A LNDA ATTIC ON THE GAMES
      WHAT TO DO

    • Augustus

      Desperate Times for Southern Brazil
      It’s extremely distressing to see so much destruction and suffering in southern Brazil. It is particularly more distressing to see assistance arriving so late in the stage of the catastrphe… At least something appears to be done now.
      In addition, it is further worrisome, for Brazil as a whole, that some of its weathiest areas are being damaged and destroyed…
      I’m simply speechless by the extend of the tragedy!
      😥 😥 😥 😥

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